Skip to content
Home » Basic Knowledge » Solid Minerals in Nigerian States: A Closer Look at Regional Potentials

Solid Minerals in Nigerian States: A Closer Look at Regional Potentials


Nigeria’s diverse geological environment is home to a wide array of solid minerals, each offering unique opportunities for economic development across the country’s states. This article delves into the specific solid minerals found in various Nigerian states, highlighting their economic potential and current state of exploitation.

North Central

  1. Kwara State
    • Key Minerals: Limestone, Marble, Feldspar
    • Overview: Kwara State is endowed with rich limestone deposits, crucial for cement manufacturing. Marble mining supports local industries, while feldspar is used in glass and ceramics production.
  2. Niger State
    • Key Minerals: Gold, Talc, Kaolin
    • Overview: Niger State has significant gold deposits, attracting both artisanal and large-scale miners. Talc and kaolin mining offer opportunities for the cosmetics and ceramics industries, respectively.
  3. Benue State
    • Key Minerals: Limestone, Gypsum, Barite
    • Overview: Benue State is a major limestone producer, feeding into the cement industry. Gypsum mining supports construction, while barite is essential for oil and gas drilling operations.
  4. Kogi State
    • Key Minerals: Iron Ore, Coal, Limestone
    • Overview: Kogi State is a major iron ore producer, with deposits critical for Nigeria’s steel industry. Coal mining is also prominent, and the state’s limestone supports several cement factories.
  5. Nasarawa State
    • Key Minerals: Tin, Columbite, Tantalite
    • Overview: Nasarawa’s mineral wealth includes tin, columbite, and tantalite, attracting both small-scale and large-scale miners. The state’s strategic location facilitates mineral exportation.
  6. Plateau State
    • Key Minerals: Tin, Columbite, Tantalite
    • Overview: Historically, Plateau State has been a major mining hub, especially for tin and columbite. Mining activities date back to the early 20th century, significantly contributing to the local economy. However, modern challenges include the need for technological advancement and environmental management.
  7. Federal Capital Territory (Abuja)
    • No specific minerals mentioned.

North East

  1. Adamawa State
    • Key Minerals: Gypsum, Magnesite, Kaolin, Bentonite
    • Overview: Adamawa State is rich in gypsum, used in cement and plaster production. Magnesite and kaolin deposits support the ceramics and pharmaceuticals industries. Bentonite is used in drilling fluids for oil and gas exploration.
  2. Bauchi State
    • Key Minerals: Limestone, Gypsum, Kaolin
    • Overview: Bauchi is endowed with significant deposits of limestone and gypsum, which are critical for the cement industry. Kaolin, used in ceramics and pharmaceuticals, also presents substantial economic opportunities.
  3. Borno State
    • Key Minerals: Gypsum, Limestone, Kaolin
    • Overview: Borno State has extensive gypsum and limestone deposits, important for the construction industry. Kaolin mining supports local ceramics and pharmaceuticals.
  4. Gombe State
    • Key Minerals: Limestone, Gypsum, Coal
    • Overview: Gombe’s limestone and gypsum deposits are pivotal for the cement industry. Coal mining has the potential to support energy production and industrial processes.
  5. Taraba State
    • Key Minerals: Kaolin, Lead, Zinc, Marble
    • Overview: Taraba State is endowed with significant deposits of kaolin, which finds application in ceramics, paper, and pharmaceutical industries. The state also boasts deposits of lead and zinc, crucial for metallurgical processes and industrial applications. Marble, another prominent mineral in Taraba, supports the construction and decorative sectors, contributing to the state’s economic diversity and potential for mineral-based development.
  1. Yobe State
    • Key Minerals: Gypsum, Limestone, Kaolin
    • Overview: Yobe State’s mineral resources include gypsum and limestone, essential for construction. Kaolin mining offers opportunities in ceramics and pharmaceuticals.

North West

  1. Jigawa State
    • Key Minerals: Gold, Limestone, Gypsum
    • Overview: Jigawa State has potential gold deposits, along with significant limestone and gypsum, which are essential for cement manufacturing.
  2. Kaduna State
    • Key Minerals: Gold, Nickel, Tin, Columbite
    • Overview: Kaduna State is rich in gold and other valuable minerals like nickel and columbite. Recent explorations have sparked interest from both local and international investors. Efforts are ongoing to develop the necessary infrastructure to support large-scale mining activities.
  3. Kano State
    • Key Minerals: Tantalite, Tin, Columbite
    • Overview: Kano State has potential for mining tantalite, tin, and columbite. These minerals are critical for electronics and other high-tech industries, offering substantial economic benefits.
  4. Katsina State
    • Key Minerals: Kaolin, Marble, Salt
    • Overview: Katsina State has kaolin and marble deposits, which support the ceramics and construction industries. Salt mining is also significant for local industries.
  5. Kebbi State
    • Key Minerals: Gold, Limestone, Nickel, Iron Ore
    • Overview: Kebbi State is rich in gold, limestone, and nickel deposits, with potential for significant economic development. Iron ore mining supports the metallurgical industry.
  6. Sokoto State
    • Key Minerals: Limestone, Phosphate, Gypsum
    • Overview: Sokoto’s limestone deposits are integral to the cement industry. Phosphate mining supports agriculture through fertilizer production, and gypsum is used in construction.
  7. Zamfara State
    • Key Minerals: Gold, Lead, Zinc
    • Overview: Zamfara State is renowned for its gold deposits. Lead and zinc mining also contribute to the local economy, although the state has faced challenges with illegal mining and associated health risks.

South East

  1. Abia State
    • Key Minerals: Limestone, Zinc, Lead
    • Overview: Abia State’s limestone, zinc, and lead deposits offer opportunities for construction, metallurgy, and industrial development.
  2. Anambra State
    • Key Minerals: Limestone, Clay, Coal
    • Overview: Anambra’s limestone and clay deposits are vital for the cement and ceramics industries. Coal mining offers potential for energy production and industrial use.
  3. Ebonyi State
    • Key Minerals: Lead, Zinc, Salt
    • Overview: Ebonyi State is renowned for its lead and zinc deposits, essential for the metallurgical industry. The state’s salt deposits also have economic significance, particularly for the chemical industry.
  4. Enugu State
    • Key Minerals: Coal, Limestone, Iron Ore
    • Overview: Known for its substantial coal reserves, Enugu State was historically a major coal mining hub. Efforts to revive the coal industry are underway, alongside exploration of limestone and iron ore for industrial use.
  5. Imo State
    • Key Minerals: Lead, Zinc, Limestone
    • Overview: Imo State has significant lead and zinc deposits, supporting the metallurgical industry. Limestone mining is also crucial for construction materials.

South South

  1. Akwa Ibom State
    • Key Minerals: Limestone, Clay, Silica Sand
    • Overview: Akwa Ibom’s limestone and clay deposits are important for construction and ceramics. Silica sand is used in glassmaking and other industrial applications.
  2. Bayelsa State
    • Key Minerals: Clay, Sand, Salt
    • Overview: Bayelsa State has deposits of clay and sand, supporting construction and ceramics industries. Salt mining also contributes to local economic activities.
  3. Cross River State
    • Key Minerals: Limestone, Barite, Tin
    • Overview: Cross River’s vast limestone deposits are pivotal for the cement industry. Barite, used in drilling fluids for oil and gas exploration, and tin add to the state’s diverse mineral portfolio.
  4. Delta State
    • Key Minerals: Glass Sand, Clay, Limestone
    • Overview: Delta State’s glass sand is critical for the glass manufacturing industry. Clay supports ceramics, while limestone is essential for construction.
  5. Edo State
    • Key Minerals: Limestone, Marble, Bitumen
    • Overview: Edo State’s rich limestone and marble deposits are critical for construction and decorative industries. Bitumen exploration is also gaining traction, with the potential to significantly boost the state’s economy.
  6. Rivers State
    • Key Minerals: Silica Sand, Clay, Coal
    • Overview: Rivers State has significant silica sand deposits, used in glassmaking and foundry. Clay mining supports ceramics, and coal offers potential for energy production.

South West

  1. Ekiti State
    • Key Minerals: Granite, Bauxite, Tantalite
    • Overview: Ekiti State is notable for its granite, which supports a robust construction industry. Bauxite and tantalite also present opportunities for mining and industrial development.
  2. Lagos State
    • Key Minerals: Sand, Granite, Clay
    • Overview: Although Lagos is primarily known for its commercial and economic activities, it has deposits of sand, granite, and clay, supporting construction and industrial uses.
  3. Ogun State
    • Key Minerals: Limestone, Phosphate, Clay
    • Overview: Ogun State is a powerhouse for limestone, making it pivotal for Nigeria’s cement industry. The state’s extensive clay deposits also support a thriving ceramics sector. Phosphate mining has potential but requires further exploration and development.
  4. Ondo State
    • Key Minerals: Bitumen, Limestone, Kaolin
    • Overview: Ondo State boasts one of the largest bitumen deposits in the world. This resource has significant potential to reduce Nigeria’s reliance on imported bitumen. Limestone and kaolin deposits further diversify the state’s mineral wealth.
  5. Osun State
    • Key Minerals: Gold, Talc, Granite
    • Overview: Osun State is rapidly emerging as a gold mining hub, with significant exploration activities underway. Talc and granite further enhance the state’s mineral diversity.
  6. Oyo State
    • Key Minerals: Marble, Granite, Kaolin
    • Overview: Oyo State’s marble and granite deposits are critical for construction and decorative stone industries. Kaolin mining supports ceramics and pharmaceuticals.

Challenges and Opportunities

  1. Infrastructure Development
  • Overview: A significant challenge across all regions is inadequate infrastructure. Investments in transportation, power, and processing facilities are crucial to fully realize the potential of these mineral resources.
  1. Environmental and Social Sustainability
  • Overview: Ensuring sustainable mining practices is essential to mitigate environmental degradation and promote community development. Compliance with environmental regulations and community agreements is critical.
  1. Investment and Funding
  • Overview: Attracting both local and international investment remains a priority. Government incentives and supportive policies can enhance the sector’s attractiveness to investors.
  1. Regulatory Framework
  • Overview: Strengthening the enforcement of existing regulations and updating policies to reflect current realities will support the sector’s growth. Streamlining licensing procedures and ensuring transparency are key steps.


The solid minerals sector in Nigeria holds vast potential across its various states. Each region’s unique mineral endowment offers distinct opportunities for economic development, job creation, and industrial growth. The regional distribution of these minerals highlights the potential for localized development and job creation. However, realizing this potential requires addressing infrastructural, environmental, regulatory, and investment challenges.

By addressing these challenges and implementing sustainable mining practices supported by a robust legal framework and proactive government policies, Nigeria can harness its mineral wealth to drive sustainable development and economic diversification. Continued collaboration between government, private sector, and local communities will be essential in unlocking the full benefits of Nigeria’s solid mineral wealth.

Government initiatives, private sector involvement, and international partnerships will play crucial roles in unlocking the full potential of Nigeria’s solid minerals sector. With concerted efforts, Nigeria can ensure that its solid minerals sector contributes significantly to national development and improves the livelihoods of its people.


While this compilation provides a comprehensive overview of solid minerals across Nigerian states, it’s essential to note that the availability and current status of these minerals may vary or not be entirely accurate. Factors such as ongoing geological surveys, changes in extraction technologies, and regulatory developments can influence the accessibility and commercial viability of mineral resources over time. Therefore, stakeholders interested in the specific exploitation of these minerals are advised to conduct thorough due diligence, including consulting updated geological data and engaging with local authorities and industry experts to verify the current status and potential of mineral deposits in each region. This approach ensures informed decision-making and effective planning for investment and development initiatives in Nigeria’s solid minerals sector.

Open chat
Scan the code
Can we help you? You can chat with us via WhatsApp.
Skip to content